By Alhazen, A. Mark Smith
Someday among 1028 and 1038, Ibn al-Haytham accomplished his huge optical synthesis, Kitab al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"). by means of no later than 1200, and maybe a little previous, this treatise seemed in Latin less than the name De aspectibus. In that shape it was once attributed to a undeniable "Alhacen." those alterations in identify and authorial designation are indicative of the profound transformations among the 2 models, Arabic and Latin, of the treatise. in lots of methods, actually, they are often seemed no longer easily as assorted models of an identical paintings, yet as various works of their personal correct. consequently, the Arab writer, Ibn al-Haytham, and his Latin incarnation, Alhacen, symbolize specified, occasionally even conflicting, interpretive voices. And an analogous holds for his or her respective texts. To complicate concerns, "Alhacen" doesn't signify a unmarried interpretive voice. there have been no less than translators at paintings at the Latin textual content, one among them adhering faithfully to the Arabic unique, the opposite content material with distilling, even paraphrasing, the Arabic unique. accordingly, the Latin textual content offers no longer one, yet at the very least faces to the reader. This two-volume serious variation represents fourteen years of labor on Dr. Smith's half. provided the 2001 J. F. Lewis Award.
Read Online or Download Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume One - Introduction and Latin Text (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) PDF
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Additional resources for Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume One - Introduction and Latin Text (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society)
87 Color, in short, is immediately visible; all other qualities that are subject to visual perception are mediately visible. 88 Occupying the surfaces of bodies, moreover, color defines them for sight by providing the boundary-conditions under which they are visually grasped as discrete wholes. 89 Like Euclid, Ptolemy places the burden for explaining spatial perception squarely upon the visual cone. ,up, down, left, right). 90 This ability to gauge distances plays a crucial part in most spatial perceptions.
Were it to be thus exposed to external irritants, it would suffer immediate damage because of its fragile structure. Consequently, it is afforded dual protection, first by an INTRODUCTION xxxix extension of the choroid tunic that originates at the equator of the spherical crystalline lens and enfolds some, though not all, of its anterior portion. This anterior extension constitutes what we today call the iris, the circular perforation in its middle forming the pupil. The second level of protection is provided by a thin, transparent, and very hard extension of the sclera that projects out beyond both the anterior surface of the lens and the iris that covers it.
152 z figure 7 With this demonstration,al-Kindi has brought three points to the fore. First, radiation should be understood as absolutely punctiform, each "luminous"point radiatingits "form"in a sphere of propagation, insofaras thatis possible,barringany impediment(as,for example,from the surface of the eye). Second, radiation is absolutely continuous; it does not occur along discrete, rectilinearlines, although the sphere of propagationcanbe resolvedinto such lines for analyticpurposes. Third, the operativepartof the eye in the generationand propagationof visual power is not the center,as it is for Ptolemy and, by implication,Euclid; it is, rather,the surfaceitself.
Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume One - Introduction and Latin Text (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) by Alhazen, A. Mark Smith