By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E
CD contains pupil variations of the OASYS software program programs 'FREW' and 'Safe'.
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Extra resources for A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels
With sufficient time and erosion these igneous bodies become exposed at the ground surface and represent the roots of the ancient mountain chains. For example, there is a lot of granite in the Highlands of Scotland where there once was a mountain chain as high as the present-day Himalayas. A good example of a batholith is in south-west England. Parts are raised above the present-day ground surface in the form of Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor which are connected underground to the Scilly Isles. 19 Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Both intrusions are highly fractured which is the result of cooling. These intrusions would have cooled rapidly and hence the rocks will be fine-grained. The typical material that forms these sills is dolerite. Dolerite is a basic igneous rock. It is dark in colour and often forms sills and dykes emanating from the granite mass. The granite mass is high in silica and undergoes a fractionation process that changes the chemistry as the material comes away from the granite. At the ground surface, much finer-grained material is found in lava flows, where lots of gas bubbles can occur, particularly at the top of the lava flow where pumice is formed.
Indeed, most of the earthquakes associated with the ocean ridge system are located on the transform faults. The rock cycle Overview Plate tectonics causes the creation of new rocks through magma rising from the mantle together with partial melting in subduction zones. It also causes the creation of mountain chains which brings rocks that were once buried to be exposed at the ground surface. Once at the surface they are attacked both physically and chemically, resulting in them being broken down into sediments which are readily carried away by water, wind and ice to be deposited elsewhere.
A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels by Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E