By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise advisor on picking out and measuring skinny movie thickness through optical methods.
This functional e-book covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness size, and sleek purposes. In so doing, it indicates the functions and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units in addition to their overview methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and topic. the most subject of this publication, the choice of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack through measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is taken care of within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous business purposes of the layer thickness size, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at commercial and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands excited by all parts of optical layer and skinny optical movie size and metrology, procedure keep watch over, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical size (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness choice (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 functions (pages 149–185):
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
5p). A special case is the maximum for sin(b) ¼ 0. 61). Up to now, we considered the slit only in one dimension, having a width b. In fact, the slit has also a height h and we can ﬁnd also diffraction in the vertical direction if the height h is sufﬁciently small. 9b shows the diffraction by a quadratic slit. The pictures are taken from Ref. . 10) illuminated by a plane wave. The periodicity of the slits is the grating period, g. The reciprocal of the grating period is called groove density, L ¼ 1/g.
For s k ¼ 0, a pure Gaussian shape is obtained, and for s k > 5 a Lorentzian shape is obtained. In metals, semimetals, and semiconductors, an important contribution to the dielectric function stems from unbound charge carriers, the so-called free electrons. Within the harmonic oscillator model, their contribution is obtained when assuming the eigenfrequency vfe ¼ 0, corresponding to moving in a potential V(r) ¼ 0. Then, the susceptibility of the free electrons – the Drude susceptibility [29, 30] – reads xfe ðvÞ ¼ À v2 v2P þ ivcfe ð2:101Þ with the abbreviation v2P ¼ Ne20 Vmeff e0 ð2:102Þ being the plasma frequency of the free electrons assuming them as a plasma.
With increasing size, however, forward scattering dominates the spatial distribution. Not only the size of the scatterer but also its shape, constitution, and refractive index affect light scattering. The size has the main effect. Finally, the concentration of scatterers in a volume inﬂuences the spatial distribution of scattered light. Densely packed scatterers lead to an almost homogeneous distribution of scattered light like, for example in clouds, fog, dispersion colors, or paper. In each case, the scattering diminishes the radiation ﬂux in propagation direction of the reﬂected, refracted, or diffracted light by the redistribution of the incident light into all solid angles.
A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten