By David Hunter
A realistic advent to serious considering throughout quite a few disciplines
Knowing easy methods to imagine significantly approximately what to think and what to do is vital for achievement in either educational environments. a pragmatic consultant to severe considering introduces readers to the suggestions, equipment, and criteria for pondering seriously approximately purposes and arguments in almost any quarter of perform. whereas so much literature on serious pondering specializes in its formal purposes inside philosophy, this publication bargains a vast notion of severe considering and explores its sensible relevance to engaging in examine throughout a wide selection of disciplines, together with company, schooling, and the organic sciences.
While the booklet pursues an interdisciplinary method of severe considering, delivering examples and illustrations from varied topics and fields of study, it additionally offers thoughts to aid readers establish the equipment and criteria which are attribute of serious considering of their selected branches of studying, of their office, and of their personal lives. the concept that of a controversy is prolonged past its philosophical roots to incorporate experimentation, trying out, dimension, coverage improvement and evaluate, and aesthetic appreciation as actions that require serious pondering. The logical, middle ideas of severe considering are awarded in a rigorous but casual means, with inventive and useful ideas for outlining, studying, and comparing purposes and arguments anyplace they're came across. every one bankruptcy ends with a "Mistakes to Avoid" part in addition to numerous routines designed to aid readers combine and expand the chapter's lessons.
A sensible advisor to serious pondering is a superb booklet for classes on severe considering and common sense on the upper-undergraduate and graduate degrees. it's also a suitable reference for someone with a normal curiosity in severe considering abilities.
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe
Suppose that the crew and passengers had gotten lucky and the ship m a d e it safely to America. Still, Clifford argued, it would have been just as wrong for the shipowner to allow the ship to sail and to have believed as he did that the ship was safe. Suppose finally that the ship was in fact quite safe, and that the ship-owner's initial concerns about its safety were not well founded. Still, if the ship-owner ignored those concerns and convinced himself that the ship was safe in hopes of saving a few dollars, Clifford argued, it would still have been just as wrong for him to have allowed the ship to sail and for him to have believed as he did that the ship was safe.
I was not responsible for it. In a real sense, I did not make up my mind to believe that he was guilty; rather, my mind was m a d e up for me. But that is not how I want my beliefs and opinions to get made. I want t h e m to be my beliefs and opinions, ones that I choose and can take responsibility for having, not ones that were simply given to me or (even worse) forced on me. A n d this is so even if the prejudicial beliefs turn out to b e true. Making up one's own mind is part of what it is to be autonomous.
We say that people who treat Asians or Catholics less well than they treat E u r o p e a n s or Episcopalians are prejudiced against them. Some people used to believe that Irish immigrants were 26 T H E N A T U R E A N D V A L U E OF CRITICAL THINKING lazy, could never keep a job, and didn't care about supporting their families. Irish immigrants were discriminated against as a result of these prejudicial views. Of course, those beliefs about Irish immigrants were totally false, and it is even hard for us now to imagine how anyone could have believed them in the first place.
A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe by David Hunter